Kesatuan Sekerja

Kebebasan untuk Menyertai dan Membentuk Kesatuan Sekerja

In accordance with the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, all citizens have the right to form associations however it allows restrictions as deemed necessary or expedient in the interest of the security of the Federation or any part thereof, public order or morality. The right to association and to form and join unions are regulated under the Industrial Relation Act 1967 (Act 177) and Trade Union Act 1959 (Act 262).

Trade union is defined as any association or combination of workmen or employers, being workmen whose place of work is in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah or Sarawak, as the case may be, or employers employing workmen in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah or Sarawak, as the case may be within any particular establishment, trade, occupation or industry or within any similar trades, occupations or industries. Both temporary and permanent workers are allowed to form and join unions.

In accordance with Industrial Relation Act 1967, workers in Malaysia have the right to form and join trade union. Employers are prohibited to prevent a worker from joining a union by putting a condition in contract of service. Moreover, no employer may refuse to employ a worker on the grounds that he is a trade union member or officer. In addition, no employer may discriminate against a worker on the grounds that he is a trade union member or officer and. No worker may be threatened with dismissal or is dismissed if he proposes to join a trade union or if he participates in union activities. The Act further requires that no person may interfere with, restrain or coerce a workman or an employer in the exercise of his rights to form and assist in the formation of and join a trade union and to participate in its lawful activities. It also prohibits the trade union of employers and workers to interfere in each other’s establishment, functioning and administration.

Every trade union must be registered with the Director General of Trade Unions (DGTU). A trade union is required to submit an application for registration, signed by at least seven members. Once the DGTU accepts the application for registration, it issues a certificate of registration to the union which is the conclusive evidence that trade union is duly registered. Registration of a trade union can be cancelled by the DGTU for many reasons. Some of these include:

a)     If the certificate of registration was obtained or issued by fraud or mistake;

b)     If the object(s), rules or constitution of the trade union are unlawful;

c)     If the trade union is being used for unlawful purpose or its funds have been expended in an unlawful manner

A trade union enjoys rights, immunities and privileges only once it is registered.

Source: §10 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia 1957; Part III and IV of the Trade Union Act 1959; §4-5 of the Industrial Relations Act 1967

Kebebasan Perundingan Kolektif

In order to engage in collective bargaining, a trade union must be registered with the DGTU and granted recognition by the employer. The Industrial Relations Act 1967 stipulates the mechanism and requirements for trade union recognition. A trade union may obtain recognition by serving a notice to the employer with a claim for recognition. Within 21 days, employer is required to either accord recognition or inform the trade union of the grounds for not granting recognition.  If the employer does not respond in the 21-day period or decides not to grant recognition, trade union may report this matter to the Director General of Industrial Relations (DGIR) within 14 days. DGIR may ascertain the competence of the trade union to represent workmen and determine the percentage of workmen (who are members of the claimant trade union) through secret ballot. Once this information is available, DGIR notified the Minister of Human Resources who gives final decision on the recognition claim.

Once a trade union is accorded recognition, either party may invite the other to commence collective bargaining. This invitation for bargaining is in writing and may include one or more of the following proposals: provision for training to enhance skills and knowledge of the workmen; provision for an annual review of the wage system; and provision for a performance-based remuneration system.

If an invitation to collective bargaining has been refused or is not accepted within 14 days or where collective bargaining has not commenced within 30 days from the date of receipt of reply, the party making the invitation may notify the DGIR in writing who may take such necessary steps to bringing the parties for commencing collective bargaining without any delay. If the collective bargaining still does not start, a trade dispute is deemed to exist.

A collective agreement is in writing and is signed by all the parties to the agreement. A collective agreement sets out the terms of the agreement including the names of the parties; duration of the agreement (cannot be less than three years); procedure for its modification and termination; and procedure for adjustment of any question that may arise with regard to its implementation or interpretation. Terms or conditions in a collective agreement which are less favorable than those provided under the law are null and provisions of law are substituted in their place.  A signed copy of the collective agreement must jointly be deposited by the parties to Registrar within one month of its entry into force.

Source: §9 & 13-17 of the Industrial Relations Act 1967

Hak untuk Mogok

Perkataan "mogok" ditakrifkan secara umum di bawah Akta Kesatuan Sekerja  dan Akta Perhubungan Perusahaan . Secara ringkasnya, mogok dimaksudkan sebagai suatu kumpulan pekerja  yang berhenti dan telah  bertindak dalam gabungan atau di bawah persefahaman, bertujuan untuk menyebabkan apa-apa batasan, sekatan, pengurangan atau pemberhentian dalam pelaksanaan untuk keseluruhan atau mana-mana bahagian tugas-tugas yang berkaitan dengan pekerjaan mereka.

Tindakan seperti mogok, sekat masuk kerja dan piket ditadbir oleh undang-undang dan Akta Kesatuan Sekerja membuktikan bahawa kesatuan sekerja boleh melakukan mogok jika:

a. mendapat persetujuan sekurang-kurangnya dua pertiga daripada jumlah ahli-ahlinya (melalui undi rahsia);

b. telah dibenarkan sekurang-kurangnya 7 tujuh hari untuk lulus selepas mengemukakan keputusan undi rahsia kepada KPKS;

c. dicadangkan mogok yang perlu patuh peraturan kesatuan sekerja dan undang-undang lain yang terpakai.

Akta Perhubungan Perusahaan mempunyai peruntukan lanjut mengenai mogok dan sekat masuk kerja. Perbuatan mogok atau sekat masuk kerja akan dianggap tidak sah jika diisytiharkan bertentangan dengan peruntukan-peruntukan Akta Perhubungan Perusahaan ( keadaan / situasi yang dinyatakan di bawah seksyen 43-44 Akta tersebut). Perbuatan sekat masuk kerja yang diisytiharkan oleh majikan akibat serangan menyalahi undang-undang (atau mogok diisytiharkan akibat daripada sekatan haram) tidak dianggap menyalahi undang-undang.

Seseorang pekerja yang memulakan, meneruskan atau bertindak dalam melaksanakan mogok yang menyalahi undang-undang, apabila disabitkan boleh dipenjarakan selama tempoh tidak melebihi satu tahun atau didenda tidak melebihi satu ribu ringgit atau kedua-duanya sekali. Tambahan lagi, denda tambahan sebanyak lima puluh ringgit untuk setiap hari selama mana kesalahan itu berterusan juga boleh dikenakan. Penalti yang sama akan dikenakan kepada majikan yang memulakan, meneruskan atau bertindak dalam melaksanakan sekatan masuk kerja yang tidak sah.

Berpiket secara aman untuk mendapatkan atau menyampaikan maklumat, atau memujuk atau mendorong pekerja untuk bekerja atau tidak bekerja adalah dibenarkan. Walau bagaimanapun, berpiket tidak perlu dilakukan oleh pekerja yang ramai untuk  menakut-nakutkan mana-mana orang, menghalang pendekatan penyelesaian  atau keluar daripadanya premis atau tempat kerja majikan, atau membawa kepada ketidaktenteraman. Hukuman juga boleh dikenakan kepada mereka yang menghasut orang lain untuk mengambil bahagian dalam bertindak dengan melaksanakan serangan menyalahi undang-undang atau sekat-masuk kerja. Seseorang yang dengan sengaja menyediakan bantuan kewangan dalam membantu mogok atau sekat-masuk kerja yang haram boleh disabitkan dengan penjara selama tempoh tidak melebihi 6 bulan atau denda tidak melebihi lima ratus ringgit atau kedua-duanya . Semua kesalahan ini boleh ditangkap (di mana penangkapan tanpa waran dapat dilakukan) dan bukan kesalahan yang diikat jamin.

Sumber: 25A Akta Kesatuan Sekerja 1959; Seksyen 38-50 Akta Perhubungan Peruasahaan 1967.

Peraturan berkenaan Kesatuan Sekerja

  • Perlembagaan Persekutuan 1957 / Federal Constitution of Malaysia 1957
  • Kesatuan Sekerja 1959 / Trade Union Act 1959
  • Perhubungan Peruasahaan 1967 / Industrial Relations Act 1967
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